6. Finding the Leak 155
Clean Up 156
Examine the Exterior Hull First 158
Essential Calculations 158
Calculating Internal Volume 160
The Short Method 161
Area of the Water Plane 162
The Long Method 163
The Block Coefficient 163
Pounds Per Inch Immersion 163
Water Flow Rates 165
Adjusting for Error 168
Empirical Testing Methods 168
Causes of Leaks 169
Gauging Shaft & Rudder Seal Leakage 169
Hidden Leaks 170
Alterations and Additions to Yachts 171
Improper Ventilator Design 171
Small Boats 172
Rear Engine Boats 173
Outboard Boats 173
The Motor Well Design 175
The No Well Design 175
Bolt-On Brackets 176
The Integral Platform Design 176
Stern Drive Boats 178
External Factors 179
The Effects of Tides 179
Wave Action 179
The Right Circumstances 180
Peculiar Circumstances 181
Sketches & Drawings 182
Excerpt: Chapter Chapter 6
In many cases finding the source of water ingress into the vessel will come quickly and easily, but for many others it will turn out to be a long, dirty and arduous task.
There are huge differences between investigating a sinking of a twenty foot outboard boat and a larger yacht where the greater size presents more difficulties.
In some instances the investigator will find it necessary to take measurements and perform calculations in order to establish flow rates, volumes of water and periods of time. How to perform such calculations will be discussed in this chapter as well as Chapter Seven, Sinking Due to Rain.
Sinking investigations that end up in litigation of prove to be problems for the investigator who is asserting a cause. This is because there are always numerous possibilities for every case that aren't easy to disprove.
Since the investigator never gets any advance indication that litigation will result, his best approach is to assume that it will. Therefore, in this chapter we will consider some of the more technical aspects of proving a cause, even though more often than not such measures will not be required.
Once the investigator finds what he believes is the cause, he may get an indication at this point whether litigation will be forthcoming. If so, he should proceed to cover every possibility. Conclusively proving a cause can be time consuming and, as usual, the investigator is likely to find himself up against time and cost constraints.
The novice needs to be reminded that covering what is not the cause can be just as important as what is. As always, he will need to impress upon his client that solid proof will be needed to win a case.
A key question the investigator will frequently have to ask is whether the evidence is so obvious that it speaks for itself and will stand independently as proof, or does the evidence require concise demonstration that it is proof.
This is a question that will present itself in many ways but is frequently difficult to answer. The safe solution is to always seek to gain whatever additional demonstrative proof as may be available. This will include such measures as calculation and empirical testing.
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Expand your marine business!
Conducting marine investigations can help free you from the limitations of a seasonal business and expand your business opportunities and income.
hires marine investigators?
In addition to insurance companies, specialist investigators merge their specialized pleasure craft knowledge with investigative abilities for a broad range of clientele.
can range from boat owners with serious warranty claim disputes and
faulty repair issues to being hired by lawyers as investigators as
either fact witnesses or expert witnesses.
Marine investigators often work for boat owners who are having trouble with insurance claim issues, assisting the boat owner obtain a proper claims settlement.
by David H. Pascoe
Publisher: D. H. Pascoe & Co., Inc.
David Pascoe - Biography
David Pascoe is a second generation marine surveyor in his family who began his surveying career at age 16 as an apprentice in 1965 as the era of wooden boats was drawing to a close.
Certified by the National Association of Marine Surveyors in 1972, he has conducted over 5,000 pre purchase surveys in addition to having conducted hundreds of boating accident investigations, including fires, sinkings, hull failures and machinery failure analysis.
Over forty years of knowledge and experience are brought to bear in following books. David Pascoe is the author of:
- "Mid Size Power Boats" (2003)
- "Buyers’ Guide to Outboard Boats" (2002)
- "Surveying Fiberglass Power Boats" (2001, 2nd Edition - 2005)
- "Marine Investigations" (2004).
In addition to readers in the United States, boaters and boat industry professionals worldwide from over 70 countries have purchased David Pascoe's books, since introduction of his first book in 2001.
In 2012, David Pascoe has retired from marine surveying business at age 65.